1989 - 19th Biennial Conference - State College, PA

Held at the Pennsylvania State University (Peter Thrower and Ljubisa Radovic, Organizers)


Conference Chairman:
Peter A. Thrower, Penn State University
Technical Program Chairman: Ljubisa R. Radovic, Penn State University
Conference Coordinator:
Barbara Impellitteri, Penn State University


Adsorption and Surface Science:
Om P. Mahajan, Amoco Research Corporation
Carbonization, Mesophase and Graphitization:
Robert G. Jenkins, University of Cincinnati
Fibers and Composites:
Linda E. Jones, The Pennsylvania State University
Growth of Various Forms of Carbon: 
(Michael Y. Frenklach, Coordinator)
Diamond: Michael Y. Frenklach, The Pennsylvania State University

Filamentous Carbon:
R. Terry K. Baker, Auburn University
Pyrolytic Carbon:
J. Kaae, G. A. Technologies
Robert J. Santoro, The Pennsylvania State University
Industrial Applications:
Edward A. Heintz, State University of New York, Buffalo
Intercalated and Chemically Modified Graphites: 
Deborah D. L. Chung, SUNY - Buffalo
Ismail M. K. Ismail, University of Dayton Research Center


Plenary Session I 
(D. W. McKee, presiding)
Carbon Fibers: History and Current Developments
R Bacon, Amoco Performance Products

Fibers and Composites
(P. A. Thrower, presiding)
An STM examination of the surface of a graphitized carbon fiber
W P Hoffman, H T Phan, T W Owens and W C Hurley
Investigation of effect of carbon fiber surface on fiber-matrix bond strength by electrochemical evaluation
A Fukunaga and S Ueda
Single filament bonding in carbon-carbon composites
P M Sheaffer

Carbonization, Mesophase and Graphitization 
(S. Eser, presiding)
Thermogravimetric study of the pyrolysis of pitch and mesophase
B Rand and M. Benn
A picture processing technique for determining mesophase content
H Sunago, M Higuchi and T Tomioka
Structural studies of mesophase pitch by SAXS and WAXS
M Mayer and W Ruland

(I. M. K. Ismail, presiding)
An assessment of the properties which control the reactivity of coal chars
E Haley, N M Skorupska, H Marsh and I A S Edwards
Characterization of coals and carbons by temperature-programmed oxidation and Raman spectroscopy
J van Doorn, M Vuurman and J A Moulijn
The kinetics of the reaction of anode carbons with carbon dioxide
N Bird, B McEnaney and B A Sadler

Industrial Applications
(E A Heintz, presiding)
The strength and structure of cokes and carbons
A Moreland, J W Patrick and A Walker
Stress and the microstructure of graphite
N McLachlan, M O Tucker and M J Parry
A comparison of measured and predicted internal stresses in irradiated CAGR fuel sleeves
A P G Rose, W J Stephen, M A Davies and R F Briody

Fibers and Composites
(P A Thrower, presiding)
Surface adhesion of carbon fibers after chemical treatments
S S Lin and P W Yip
Surface characteristics of carbon fibres by AC-impedance measurement
E Fitzer, F Fuder and H P Rensch
Orientation of mesophase pitch on carbon and ceramic surfaces
R T Lewis and R Bacon
SANS and TEM studies of carbon black filled polymers
L Salome and F Carmona

(S Eser, presiding)
Characterization of pitch by dynamic mechanical thermal analysis
A J Hosty,* B Rand and F R Jones
Parallel plate rheometry of neat carbonaceous mesophase
P M Sheaffer, M P Easton and D E Gilmartin
Flow behavior of mesophase pitch
J L White
DSC studies of the progress of mesophase formation>
P Tlomak, P G Wapner and M A Wright

(I M K Ismail, presiding)
Oxidation of soot by oxygen atoms at temperatures between 523 K and 873 K
B G Wicke and K A Grady
Direct observation of the interaction of atomic oxygen with carbonaceous solids
N M Rodriguez, S G Oh, W B Downs, P Pattabiraman and R T K Baker
The radiolytic oxidation rate of graphite near specimen surfaces
A Harper
The kinetics of the reaction of anode carbons with carbon dioxide
N Bird, B McEnaney and B A Sadler

Industrial Applications
(J W Patrick, presiding)
Flexural strength of nuclear graphite in a simulated AGR reactor coolant environment
A P G Rose and D D Jones
Technical production of pitch cokes - present status and perspectives
G Collin and M Zander
The measurement of the coefficient of thermal expansion of electrothermic graphite
E A Heintz
Coarse grain coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) method for characterization of petroleum coke
M J Spoon and J A Bennett

Fibers and Composites
(D D Edie, presiding)
New aspects in the stabilization of PAN-based precursors for carbon fibers
G S Bhat, F L Cook, L H Peebles and A S Abhiraman
The effect of sulphur addition to coal tar and petroleum pitch as precursor for isotropic carbon fibres
E Fitzer and G Liu
Effect of heat treatment on electronic and structural properties of PAN- and MPP-based carbon fibres
E Fitzer and W Frohs
Multi-zone deformation and stabilization of acrylic precursors for carbon fibers
G S Bhat,* V Daga and A S Abhiraman

(I Mochida, presiding)
Carbonization of anthracene and phenanthrene. I. Kinetics 
T Sasaki, R G Jenkins, S Eser and H H Schobert
Carbonization of anthracene and phenanthrene. II. Spectroscopy and mechanisms
T Sasaki, R G Jenkins, S Eser and H H Schobert
Mesophase formation: kinetics
R Menendez, H Marsh and J Bermejo
Chemical hydrotreatment of poorly graphitizing aromatic hydrocarbons
I C Lewis

(J M Calo, presiding)
Kinetics of gasification of black liquor char by steam
J Li* and A R P van Heiningen
Reactivity of petroleum cokes to oxygen and carbon dioxide
E Romero-Palaz—n,* H Marsh, F Rodr’guez-Reinoso and P Santana
The kinetics of the NO-char reaction
H Teng, E M Suuberg, J M Calo and P J Hall
The uncatalyzed carbon-hydrogen reaction
R T Yang, Z Pan and J P Chen

Industrial Applications
(P J Rhedey, presiding)
Measurement of the thermal expansion of petroleum cokes and carbon anodes for aluminium production
S Wilkening
Structural changes in anode carbon during aluminum electrolysis
E R Cutshall
Aspects of interfacial bonding in cathode materials
D Hays, J W Patrick and A Walker
Prediction of the coke quality from rotary kilns by mathematical modeling
J Perron, V Potocnik, A L Proulx and R T Bui

Fibers and Composites
(D D Edie, presiding)
Development of viscose rayon based activated carbon fibres
J N Bohra, O P Bahl, T L Dhami and R K Saxena
Boronation of carbon fibers
R O Dillon, T Kustka and S Backhaus
A thermogravimetric study on the oxidation process of a refined coal-tar pitch for fiber-making
Q Huang, Z Xiang and W Xu
Carbon fiber reinforced tin-superconductor composites
C T Ho* and D D L Chung

(I Mochida, presiding)
Preparation of highly oriented graphite between the lamellae of clay mineral
N Sonobe, T Kyotani and A Tomita
The optical texture and the physical properties of graphites
K Fujimoto, M Orita, K Mukai and K-I Fujimoto
Control of skin-core structure in mesophase pitch-based carbon fiber
I Mochida, S M Zeng, Y Korai and H Toshima
Oxidative stabilization of pitch-based carbon fibers
A C Ma, S-H Chen and R J Diefendorf

(R T Yang, presiding)
The catalyzed carbon-hydrogen reaction
P J Goethel and R T Yang
Cobalt catalyzed gasification of graphite in hydrogen and oxygen
S G Oh* and R T K Baker
The synergic effect of K-Fe composite catalyst on carbon gasification
D Jin, A Ye and B Zhang
Models for catalytic roughening
J M Ranish and P L Walker Jr

Industrial Applications
(K C Krupinski, presiding)
Development of carbon materials for the use as pistons
W Huettner, R Wolf, H BŸhl, J Heuer and P Greiner
Metal impregnated carbons - aspects of manufacturing and industrial use
W Huettner, R Wolf and U Wiessler
Low cycle fatigue life of graphites and carbon for HTGRs
T Konishi, T Oku, T Arai and M Eto
Irradiation creep properties of a fine-grained isotropic graphite for HTGRs
T Oku, T Arai and M Eto

Fibers and Composites
Mixed carbon fiber/carbon filament preforms for a new generation of advanced composites
W B Downs* and R T K Baker
The elasticity of short carbon fibers reinforced elastomers
E Tonolo, F Carmona and J M Pouyet
Thermal conductivity of carbon fibre reinforced plastic
S D McIvor, M I Darby, G H Wostenholm, B Yates, R King, L Banfield and A Webb
Microporous calcium silicate thermal insulator reinforced by carbon fibers
Q Zheng and D D L Chung
Carbon fiber reinforced gypsum plaster composites
Q Zheng and D D L Chung
Characterization of matrix structure in carbon/carbon composites
S-M Oh and J-Y Lee
Influence of densification cycles on the bulk density and flexural strength of 3D C-C composite
D Jiang, M Li, L Zhu and S Wu
Carbon/carbon composites with different carbon fibers
L M Manocha, O P Bahl and Y K Singh
Mathematical models for the prediction of thermal conductivities in constituents of carbon-carbon composites
B J Sullivan
Damping in carbon-carbon composites
L A Feldman

Industrial Applications
Thermal shock fractures of coke for blast furnace at high temperature
S Sato, A Kurumada, Y Kudo, T Suzuki, S Itagaki and S Mitani
Electromagnetic interference shielding by carbon fiber reinforced cement
J-M Chiou, Q Zheng and D D L Chung
Theoretical calculation of inductance coefficients of bus bars for graphitization furnaces
X Ying
Reaction of potassium with metallurgical coke in the blast furnace
B K C Chan, M A D’ez, H Marsh and I A S Edwards
Tribological studies of C/C composites
N Murdie, J Don, C Kocher, R Liew and C P Ju
Statistics of fracture in two grades of isotropic graphite
C R Kennedy and S Montgomery
The texture variation in extruded graphite
C R Kennedy, D O Hobson and E M Woodruff

Plenary Session II
(B. McEnaney, presiding)
Microporous Carbons and Their Characterization: The Present State of the Art
H. F. Stoeckli, University of Neuchatel, Switzerland

Fibers and Composites
(R Bacon, presiding)
The microstructure of PAN-based stabilized fibers
T-H Ko
A fine structure model for carbon fibers
A D Kennedy, C H Chi and R Barton Jr
Structure of mesophase pitch fibers
X Bourrat, E J Roche and J G Lavin

(R G Jenkins, presiding)
Anisotropy of the thermal expansion of a highly-oriented mesophase pitch
L S Singer
Solid state 13C-NMR spectra of low-temperature carbons
M Nakamizo and Y Adachi
Quantitative influence of dealkylation reactions on mesophase formation in a polymerized petroleum pitch
R A Greinke

(W P Hoffman, presiding)
On the usefulness of total surface area for predicting carbon gasification reactivity profiles: a reassessment
A A Lizzio* and L R Radovic
Reactivities of chars rationalized via the concept of active surface area
K Kuo, H Marsh and I A S Edwards
Studies of TPD spectra from surface oxides on polymer chars and coal chars
J Wang* and B McEnaney

(D D L Chung, presiding)
The preparation and properties of the low electrical resistivity bromine-graphite fiber
Z-Y Xu, H-B Liu and X-W Mo
Structure and electrical conductivity of bromine intercalated carbon fibers
H Tillgner and W Ruland
Raising the electrical conductivity of graphite fiber by electrochemical intercalation
Z-Y Xu and Y Zhou

Fibers and Composites
(R Bacon, presiding)
Microstructural analysis of pitch based carbon fibers
M A Wright, P G Wapner, N Murdie, P Tlomak and C P Ju
Elastic constants and thermal expansion coefficients of various carbon fibers
G Wagoner and R Bacon
Cross-sectional area measurement of single carbon fibers
S-S Tzeng and R J Diefendorf
Elastic and thermal conductivity properties of graphite crystals in graphitic fibers and matrices
B W Rosen and B J Sullivan

(R G Jenkins, presiding)
Characterization of carbonaceous materials: the carbon leader of the Witwatersrand system, South Africa
L B Ebert, K D Rose, J C Scanlon and E I Robbins
Investigation of a carbonaceous mesophase with Lc = 73 A
L B Ebert, R V Kastrup and J C Scanlon
The structural and dimensional changes in the puffing petroleum cokes
K-S Shi
Control of mesophase: factors controlling yield, size and structure of carbonaceous mesophase spheres
K Goto, H Marsh and I A S Edwards

(J M Ranish, presiding)
Determination of active sites by TPD measurements
K J HŸttinger
The relationship between desorption spectra of carbon oxides and "active surface area."
P J Hall, J M Calo and Y Otake
New insights into carbon gasification obtained by temperature-programmed desorption and transient kinetics
L R Radovic, A A Lizzio and H Jiang
Interaction, growing and thermal behaviour of calcium species in carbon: its effect in carbon gasification
D Cazorla-Amor—s, M Almela-Alarc—n, A Linares-Solano, C Salinas-Mart’nez de Lecea and J P Joly

(Z-Y Xu, presiding)
Electrical properties of pristine and intercalated graphite fiber epoxy composites
J R Gaier, M E Slabe and M Stahl
Electrical properties of electroconductive composite of vapor-grown carbon fibers (VGCF)
K Yagi, M Katsumata, H Yamanashi and M Endo
Thermal stability of co-deposited C-BN composites
A W Moore, S L Strong, G L Doll and M S Dresselhaus
Fluorinated graphite fibers as a new engineering material: promises and challenges
C-C Hung and M Long

Fibers and Composites
(L Jones, presiding)
Modeling of PAN-based carbon fiber precursor oxidation: predicting reaction conversions
M G Dunham and D D Edie
Physicochemical study of the anodic oxidation of carbon fibres
J B Donnet, P Ehrburger and G Guilpain
Kinetics of oxidation of carbon fibers in air at high temperatures
I M K Ismail
Oxidation of graphitized carbon fibers in air at elevated temperatures and in atomic oxygen
I M K Ismail and M D Vangsness

(H H Schobert, presiding)
Co-carbonization of coal tar pitch with oxygen-containing molecules
T Kasuh and H Marsh
Air-blowing reaction of coal-tar pitch. 1. Properties of pitch modified by air blowing
T Maeda, K Tokumitu, H Morita and I Mochida
Air-blowing reaction of coal-tar pitch. 2. The effect of starting pitch structure on their air-blowing reaction and the properties of their blown pitches
T Maeda, K Tokumitu, H Morita and I Mochida
Initial carbonization process of oxidized coal-tar pitch
T Suzuki and M Hamaguchi

Adsorption and Surface Science
(O P Mahajan, presiding)
Macroporosity in activated carbons: its origins and functions
J Wildman and F J Derbyshire
The development of mesoporosity in activated carbon cloth
J J Freeman, F G R Gimblett, N J Coney, J R Sharpe, A J Reynolds and K S W Sing.
Pore constrictions in a molecular sieve carbon
S S Barton and J E Koresh
Influence of nitrogen content on the pore development on activation of carbons with carbon dioxide
D Mang and H P Boehm

Growth of Carbon - Filamentous Carbon
(R T K Baker, presiding)
Microstructure of carbon deposits formed in real and simulated nuclear reactor coolants
R F Skinner and D J Norfolk
Filamentous and free carbon morphologies in the Fe, Ni and Co C-H-O system
G A Jablonski,* F W Geurts, A Sacco Jr, S Lee and R R Biederman
Formation of filamentous carbon on graphite-supported nickel particles
J L Figueiredo, A-K Araya and P C P Silva
The initiation and growth mechanism of filamentous carbon on Fe, Ni and Co foil - a comparative study
A Sacco Jr, F W A H Geurts, G A Jablonski and S Lee